CEDAW, 87-NJI MEJLIS: TÜRKMENISTANDA ABORT ÇÄKLENDIRMESI BARADA ÇYKYŞYMYZ

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abortionAýallara garşy diskriminasiýanyň ähli görnüşlerini ýok etmek boýunça Komitetiň 87-nji mejlisi (29-njy ýanwar 2024 – 16-njy fewral 2024)

Türkmenistan
Ýanwar 29, 2024

Center for Reproductive Rights guramasynyň çykyşy

Hanym başlyk we hormatly Komitetiň agzalary, Türkmenistanda aýallaryň aborta elýeterliliginden söz açmak mümkinçiligi üçin size minnetdarlygymy bildirýärin.

Türkmenistan göwreliligiň diňe 5-nji hepdesine çenli abort etdirmäge hukuk bermek bilen, häzirki wagtda dünýäde aborty örän ir çäklendirýän ýurtlaryň başyny çekýär.

Bu göwreliligiň 12-nji hepdesine çenli aborta rugsat beren öňki kanundan ägirt yza gaýdyşlygy görkezýär.

Komitetiň aborty jenaýat saýmagy bes etmegi we kanunlaşdyrmagy maslahat berendigine garamazdan, häzire çenli Jenaýat kodeksinde abort jenaýat hasaplanylýar we eger ýokary lukmançylyk bilimi bolan adam bikanun esasda göwreliligi emeli usul bilen aýyrsa iki ýyla çenli möhlete düzediş işlerinde işletmek jezasy berilýär.

Jenaýat kodeksinde aborty öz-özüň berjaý etmegiň gadagandygy aýdyň nygtalmaýan hem bolsa, onuň jenaýat işi hökmünde kabul edilmeginiň öňi hem alynmaýar we netijede aýallar azatlykdan mahrum bolup bilýärler.

Häzirki kanunlarda göwreliligiň 22-nji hepdesine çenli aborta diňe durmuş görkezijileri bolan ýagdaýynda rugsat berilýär we 22 hepdeden geçen göwreliligi togtatmaga saglygy goraýyş görkezijileri boýunça rugsat berilýär.

Emma welin, "durmuş görkezijileri" we "saglygy goraýyş görkezijileri" düşünjelerine anyk kesgitleme berilmeýär. Lukmançylyk-maslahat beriş toparynyň netijenamasynyň hem talap edilmegi bolsa abort etdirmegi has-da çylşyrymlaşdyrýar.

Şeýle-de, häzirki kanuna görä, 18 ýaşa ýetmediklerden abort etdirmek üçin ata-enesiniň ýazmaça razylygy we lukmançylyk-maslahat beriş toparynyň netijenamasy talap edilýär, hatda göwreliligiň ilkinji 5 hepdesinde hem.

Galyberse-de, abortlaryň diňe döwlet saglygy goraýyş edaralarynda geçirilmegine rugsat berilmegi goşmaça kynçylyk döredýär, çünki ýurtda reproduktiw saglyk edaralarynyň we lukmançylyk bilimli ginekologlaryň sany az.

Ýurtda aborta degişli hemmetaraplaýyn, jikme-jik hasabatlaryň bolmazlygy ýagdaýa düýpli düşünmäge böwet bolýar. Emma halkara guramalar 2015-2019 ýyllar aralygynda niýetlenilmedik göwrelilikleriň howsalalandyryjy derejede 83%-iniň abort bilen togtadylandygyny çaklaýarlar.

2015-nji ýylda çykan Raýatlaryň saglygynyň goralmagy hakyndaky kanunda "abort" adalgasynyň agzalmazlygy ylmy barlaglaryň göze ilmesine bökdençlik döredýär we abort barada zyýanly garaýyş-düşünjeleriň möwjemegine ýol açýar.

Şol bir wagtda, döwlet mediýasynda aýallary sekiz çaga edinmäge höweslendirýän pronatal propaganda zyýanly gender stereotipleriniň saklanyp galmagyna getirýär.

Bu kynçylyklary göz öňünde tutup, biz Komitetden Türkmenistana aborty jenaýat saýmagy bes edip, ony kanunlaşdyrmagy gaýtadan maslahat bermegi hormat bilen soraýarys.

Döwlet BSGG-nyň Abort idegi gollanmasyndan ugur alýan hemmetaraplaýyn abort idegine elýeterliligi ýola goýmaly, hemmetaraplaýyn we jikme-jik abort hasabatlaryny ýygnamaly we köpçülige ýaýratmaly, şeýle-de zyýanly gender stereotiplerine garşy işjeň göreşmeli.

Sag boluň.

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English version

Committee on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women 87th Session (29 Jan 2024 – 16 Feb 2024)

Turkmenistan
January 29, 2024

Delivered by Center for Reproductive Rights

Thank you, Madam Chair and to the Honorable Committee members, for this opportunity to share about women ‘s abortion access in Turkmenistan.

Turkmenistan currently holds the dubious distinction of having the world's lowest gestational limit on abortion, restricting the procedure to a mere 5 weeks.

This represents a significant regression from the previous law, which allowed abortions up to 12 weeks of gestation.

Despite recommendations from the Committee to decriminalize and legalize abortion, the practice persists as a crime under the Criminal Code, exposing qualified providers to potential imprisonment for up to 2 years if they perform an abortion beyond the legally sanctioned grounds.

The absence of an explicit prohibition on self-managed abortion in the Criminal Code does not prevent its interpretation as an offense and put women in jail.

Under the current laws, abortion is permitted solely on social grounds up to 22 weeks of pregnancy, and beyond 22 weeks on medical grounds.

However, the definitions of "social" and "medical" reasons lack clarity, further complicated by the involvement of a medical advisory commission in decision-making.

The law also mandates parental written consent and a medical advisory commission decision for abortions involving pregnant minors, even those within the first 5 weeks of pregnancy.

Notably, abortions are exclusively permitted in state medical institutions, a challenge given the limited number of reproductive health offices and certified gynecologist in the country.

The country’s lack of comprehensive, disaggregated abortion data hampers a nuanced understanding of the situation, although estimates from international organizations suggest an alarming 83% rate of unintended pregnancies ending in abortion between 2015-2019.

The 2015 Public Health Act's omission of the term "abortion" presents a clear disadvantage for research visibility and risks reinforcing abortion stigma.

Meanwhile, state media's pronatalist propaganda, encouraging women to have eight children, perpetuates harmful gender stereotypes.

In light of these challenges, we respectfully urge the Committee to reiterate its recommendations for decriminalizing and legalizing abortion in Turkmenistan.

The State Party must ensure access to comprehensive abortion care aligned with WHO Abortion Care Guideline, collect and disseminate comprehensive, disaggregated abortion data, and actively combat harmful gender stereotypes.

Thank you.

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